Protein Nanoparticles – PNP Impacts

For oral/subcutaneous/pulmonary delivery of hydrophobic drugs, proteins, peptides, genes and vaccine antigens

  • Proteins/Enzymes are saturated with SuperFluids™ that are then rapidly expanded
  • Protein/Enzyme nanoparticles are formed by the breaking of hydrophobic bonds and Van der Waals forces
  • Protein/Enzyme nanoparticles are cooled due to Joule-Thompson expansion effects

Impact of Pressure

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein size reduction increases non-linearly with pressure, approaching an asymptote between 3,000 and 4,000 psig for carbon dioxide. This trend is supported by the mechanism that higher pressures will result in higher expansive forces. The data indicates that extremely high pressures are not required for efficient protein disaggregation or comminution utilizing this technology.

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Impact of Protein Type

The optimal conditions established for the SuperFluids™ disaggregation of insulin were utilized to evaluate the impact of protein type. This evaluation indicates that the process is extremely robust for a wide range of proteins, molecular weights and particle sizes. Some fine-tuning may be required for specific proteins.

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Impact on Bioactivity

Insulin retains full activity after processing. For certain proteins, biological activity is enhanced because active sites are more exposed after disaggregation or comminution.

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Applications/Uses of the PNP Process

Aphios' protein nanoparticles (PNP) process can be used for oral/subcutaneous/pulmonary delivery of hydrophobic drugs such as paclitaxel, camptothecin and betulinic acid, proteins such as insulin, calcitonin and human growth hormone, peptides, genes and vaccine antigens for anthrax, HIV and influenza.

The PNP process can also be used for the manufacture of enzyme nanoparticles (nanozymes™) such as alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and cellulases for use in the biofuels industry.

Partnering Opportunity

Contact us if you are interested in evaluating this technology for your application.

We will conduct feasibility studies to evaluate the use of our PNP technology platform for your therapeutic candidates and/or products utilizing micrograms to milligrams of API (active pharmaceutical ingredients) on a laboratory scale.


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